Psycho-Babble Medication Thread 1121718

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Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 5, 2023, at 14:14:31

In reply to Re: Are Neuroleptics brain specific anticholinergics?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 5, 2023, at 2:31:40

Next question: Do MAOI increase histamine?

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by NKP on February 5, 2023, at 14:22:26

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 5, 2023, at 14:14:31

Not quite what you were asking, but glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic that acts on the peripheral, but not central, nervous system, it being unable to cross the blood-brain barrier.

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 5, 2023, at 14:26:49

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 5, 2023, at 14:14:31

> Next question: Do MAOI increase histamine?

Because it grossly destabilized me.

@ NKP I regret this typo. Lets keep it to the topic. We can open a new thread if you want to discuss anticholinergic. Thanks :)

 

Re: Are Neuroleptics brain specific anticholinergics? SLS

Posted by undopaminergic on February 5, 2023, at 16:15:47

In reply to Re: Are Neuroleptics brain specific anticholinergics? Lamdage22, posted by SLS on February 5, 2023, at 11:17:10

> Hi.
>
>
> I agree with UD.
>
> I wonder, though, if the BBB barrier prevents some substances from exiting the brain that it had previously allowed to enter it. If this occurs, then I imagine the concentration of a drug in the brain becomes higher than that in the rest of the body. Could be.
>

I can't clarify your question about the BBB possibly retaining substances. However, another mechanism for accumulation of a substance in the brain is if the substance is lipophilic, in which case the concentrations will be higher in the brain (and other fatty tissues) than the bloodstream.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by SLS on February 5, 2023, at 19:43:04

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 5, 2023, at 14:14:31

> Next question: Do MAOI increase histamine?


Like dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT), the histamine molecule is a biogenic amine. Monoamine oxides type A (MAO-A) leaves histamine virtually untouched. MAO-B metabolizes (breaks-down) histamine, but to a very small degree. MAO exists *inside* the neuron, but not outside the neuron. Histamine is metabolized *outside* the neuron by an enzyme called diamine oxidase (DAO). Another enzyme located outside the neuron is catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). As with the MAO enzyme located inside the neuron, it metabolizes DA, NE, and 5-HT outside the neuron, but to a much smaller degree.

I don't know very much about how histamine functions in the body.


- Scott

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by SLS on February 6, 2023, at 8:03:02

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by SLS on February 5, 2023, at 19:43:04

Hi.

In re: The Blood-Brain Barrier and anticholinergic drugs.

Anticholinergic drugs enter the brain at different rates.

Trospium (Sanctura) is an anticholinergic (muscarinic) drug used to treat overactive bladder, a peripheral function. However, it seems to be blocked from entering the brain almost entirely by the BBB. It can't even be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Trospium effectively treats a broad array of maladies like overactive bladder. It accomplishes this by reducing the tone of the muscles involved. Anticholinergics work by blocking the (muscranic) acetylcholine receptors that normally innervate muscles to contract. These are peripheral effects. However, when an anticholinergic drug makes its way into the brain / CNS, central side-effects can occur:

1. Short-term: Produces impairments in cognition and memory, confusion, impaired concentration, restlessness, agitation, and delirium.

2. Long-term: Increases risk for developing irreversible dementia.

Hopefully, the risk of contracting dementia when using trospium long-term will be much lower than for other anticholinergic drugs.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22390261/


- Scott

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by undopaminergic on February 6, 2023, at 12:45:07

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by SLS on February 5, 2023, at 19:43:04

> > Next question: Do MAOI increase histamine?
>
>
> Like dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT), the histamine molecule is a biogenic amine. Monoamine oxides type A (MAO-A) leaves histamine virtually untouched. MAO-B metabolizes (breaks-down) histamine, but to a very small degree. MAO exists *inside* the neuron, but not outside the neuron. Histamine is metabolized *outside* the neuron by an enzyme called diamine oxidase (DAO). Another enzyme located outside the neuron is catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). As with the MAO enzyme located inside the neuron, it metabolizes DA, NE, and 5-HT outside the neuron, but to a much smaller degree.
>

As the name implies, COMT breaks down catecholamines, but not serotonin.

> I don't know very much about how histamine functions in the body.
>

I don't know much about histamine either, but I've read it is the neurotransmitter whose activity is most correlated with wakefulness (and inversely correlated with the lack of wakefulness). This is perhaps not so surprising given the sedative effects of antihistamine drugs.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by undopaminergic on February 6, 2023, at 12:58:00

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by SLS on February 6, 2023, at 8:03:02

> Hi.
>
> In re: The Blood-Brain Barrier and anticholinergic drugs.
>
> Anticholinergic drugs enter the brain at different rates.
>
> Trospium (Sanctura) is an anticholinergic (muscarinic) drug used to treat overactive bladder, a peripheral function. However, it seems to be blocked from entering the brain almost entirely by the BBB. It can't even be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Trospium effectively treats a broad array of maladies like overactive bladder. It accomplishes this by reducing the tone of the muscles involved. Anticholinergics work by blocking the (muscranic) acetylcholine receptors that normally innervate muscles to contract. These are peripheral effects. However, when an anticholinergic drug makes its way into the brain / CNS, central side-effects can occur:
>
> 1. Short-term: Produces impairments in cognition and memory, confusion, impaired concentration, restlessness, agitation, and delirium.
>
> 2. Long-term: Increases risk for developing irreversible dementia.
>
> Hopefully, the risk of contracting dementia when using trospium long-term will be much lower than for other anticholinergic drugs.
>
> https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22390261/
>
>
> - Scott

For local (such as nasal mucosa) treatment ipratropium and tiotropium are other antimuscarinics that don't cross the blood-brain-barrier. I'm using the former to reduce night-time salivation.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 6, 2023, at 14:15:59

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by undopaminergic on February 6, 2023, at 12:45:07

> I don't know much about histamine either, but I've read it is the neurotransmitter whose activity is most correlated with wakefulness (and inversely correlated with the lack of wakefulness). This is perhaps not so surprising given the sedative effects of antihistamine drugs.
>
> -undopaminergic

Some psychiatrists describe psychosis as being 'too awake'.

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 6, 2023, at 14:18:00

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 6, 2023, at 14:15:59

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17349864/

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 6, 2023, at 14:50:44

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 6, 2023, at 14:18:00

It seems that Histamine is at least involved in Psychosis and Schizophrenia. https://www.hmpgloballearningnetwork.com/site/pcn/article/antihistamine-decreases-schizophrenia-symptoms

Maybe in a subset of patients? Im trying to get further testing in the histamine/mast cell direction asap. Im opting to go to a lab directly. I won't go around begging doctors.

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by undopaminergic on February 6, 2023, at 15:10:35

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 6, 2023, at 14:50:44

> It seems that Histamine is at least involved in Psychosis and Schizophrenia. https://www.hmpgloballearningnetwork.com/site/pcn/article/antihistamine-decreases-schizophrenia-symptoms
>

Note that this study is about a histamine *H2*-receptor antagonist (famotidine). Ordinary antihistamines block the H1-receptor.

Trimipramine and clozapine do block histamine H2, though, in addition to H1.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by SLS on February 6, 2023, at 19:11:09

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by undopaminergic on February 6, 2023, at 12:45:07

> > > Next question: Do MAOI increase histamine?
> >
> >
> > Like dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT), the histamine molecule is a biogenic amine. Monoamine oxides type A (MAO-A) leaves histamine virtually untouched. MAO-B metabolizes (breaks-down) histamine, but to a very small degree. MAO exists *inside* the neuron, but not outside the neuron. Histamine is metabolized *outside* the neuron by an enzyme called diamine oxidase (DAO). Another enzyme located outside the neuron is catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). As with the MAO enzyme located inside the neuron, it metabolizes DA, NE, and 5-HT outside the neuron, but to a much smaller degree.


> As the name implies, COMT breaks down catecholamines, but not serotonin.


Good catch. Thanks.


> > I don't know very much about how histamine functions in the body.


> I don't know much about histamine either, but I've read it is the neurotransmitter whose activity is most correlated with wakefulness (and inversely correlated with the lack of wakefulness). This is perhaps not so surprising given the sedative effects of antihistamine drugs.

I'm not sure how many pathways / neurotransmitters are involved with sleep. It's more than one, though. Hypocretin (orexin) is important in maintaining wakefulness. Hypocretin was first labeled as being a neuropeptide. Later, it was found in synaptic vesicles, so it is now often considered to be a neurotransmitter. Another substance that reduces wakefulness and promotes sleep is adenosine. Unlike hypocretin, it is not found in presynaptic vesicles, and is therefore considered a neuropeptide. Adenosine is liberated from the cell membrane along the neuron and into the fluid. There are several types of adenosine receptor. The major role of adenosine is to inhibit wakefulness and promote sleep. Caffeine produces its stimulatory behavioral effects by blocking adenosine receptors, and thus prevents adenosine from performing its role to oppose wakefulness.

Google and PubMed are fun to look through when we are discussing points of interest. I already knew some basics regarding hypocretin, adenosine, and caffeine, but I don't like to leave things that I am uncertain about go unchecked. I start out trying to fact-check what I'm writing, but this usually leads to expanding the scope of the discussion and adding details.

I didn't want to leave you with the impression that I was really that smart. <grin>.


- Scott

P.S. I really should have double-checked COMT. <wink>

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? Lamdage22

Posted by SLS on February 6, 2023, at 19:19:45

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 6, 2023, at 14:18:00

> https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17349864/

Thanks, Lamdage. I had no idea.

I found something that you might find useful:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20021346/

How does that blood test work?


- Scott

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 7, 2023, at 2:49:50

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? Lamdage22, posted by SLS on February 6, 2023, at 19:19:45

You mean the test(s) I am contemplating? From what I have gathered thus far: There are urine tests for the following:

Histamin, N-Methylhistamin and Prostaglandin D2 11-&#946;-PGF2&#945;

Blood:
Serum-Tryptase.
Serum-Chromogranin A.
chilled plasma: Prostaglandin D2, und/oder 11-&#946;-PGF2&#945;.
chilled Plasma: Histamin
chilled Plasma: Heparin

These can give you a good idea if your mast cells are overactive. There are mast cell stabilizers, natural and pharmaceutical.

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 7, 2023, at 2:51:19

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 7, 2023, at 2:49:50

My apologies: 11-beta-PGF2alpha

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? SLS

Posted by undopaminergic on February 7, 2023, at 11:15:54

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by SLS on February 6, 2023, at 19:11:09

>
> I'm not sure how many pathways / neurotransmitters are involved with sleep. It's more than one, though.
>

Dopamine too. I find it particularly interesting that dopamine neurons involved in wakefulness have been found in a region called the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG):
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16399687/
"Identification of wake-active dopaminergic neurons in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter"

> Hypocretin (orexin) is important in maintaining wakefulness. Hypocretin was first labeled as being a neuropeptide. Later, it was found in synaptic vesicles, so it is now often considered to be a neurotransmitter. Another substance that reduces wakefulness and promotes sleep is adenosine. Unlike hypocretin, it is not found in presynaptic vesicles, and is therefore considered a neuropeptide. Adenosine is liberated from the cell membrane along the neuron and into the fluid. There are several types of adenosine receptor. The major role of adenosine is to inhibit wakefulness and promote sleep. Caffeine produces its stimulatory behavioral effects by blocking adenosine receptors, and thus prevents adenosine from performing its role to oppose wakefulness.
>

I think maybe what you mean by "neuropeptide" is "neurohormone" or "neuromodulator". A neuropeptide is a substance that (1) has a peptide structure, and that (2) is involved with the nervous system. Orexin does have a peptide structure, but adenosine does not.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? SLS

Posted by undopaminergic on February 7, 2023, at 11:20:30

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? Lamdage22, posted by SLS on February 6, 2023, at 19:19:45

>
> I found something that you might find useful:
>
> https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20021346/
>

I'm very interested in trying a histamine H3-receptor antagonist (or inverse agonist), but none are clinically available.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by SLS on February 8, 2023, at 6:02:51

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? SLS, posted by undopaminergic on February 7, 2023, at 11:15:54

Hi, UD.

> I think maybe what you mean by "neuropeptide" is "neurohormone" or "neuromodulator". A neuropeptide is a substance that (1) has a peptide structure, and that (2) is involved with the nervous system. Orexin does have a peptide structure, but adenosine does not.

Another good catch. Thanks.


- Scott

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? undopaminergic

Posted by SLS on February 9, 2023, at 5:43:27

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? SLS, posted by undopaminergic on February 7, 2023, at 11:20:30

> >
> > I found something that you might find useful:
> >
> > https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20021346/
> >
>
> I'm very interested in trying a histamine H3-receptor antagonist (or inverse agonist), but none are clinically available.
>
> -undopaminergic
>

Do you know whether or not any H3 antagonists are in the pipeline for FDA approval?


- Scott

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? SLS

Posted by undopaminergic on February 9, 2023, at 10:10:52

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? undopaminergic, posted by SLS on February 9, 2023, at 5:43:27

> > >
> > > I found something that you might find useful:
> > >
> > > https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20021346/
> > >
> >
> > I'm very interested in trying a histamine H3-receptor antagonist (or inverse agonist), but none are clinically available.
> >
> > -undopaminergic
> >
>
> Do you know whether or not any H3 antagonists are in the pipeline for FDA approval?
>

No, I don't know. But I was wrong: betahistine is mostly a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, and it is clinically available in Europe, including my location, but it was withdrawn from the market in the US.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by Lamdage22 on February 9, 2023, at 11:21:51

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? SLS, posted by undopaminergic on February 9, 2023, at 10:10:52

Yep, that rings a bell. Are you still experiencing psychotic symptoms?

Was hospital of any help? Are you out again?

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? undopaminergic

Posted by Jay2112 on February 9, 2023, at 19:10:51

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? SLS, posted by undopaminergic on February 9, 2023, at 10:10:52

> > > >
> > > > I found something that you might find useful:
> > > >
> > > > https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20021346/
> > > >
> > >
> > > I'm very interested in trying a histamine H3-receptor antagonist (or inverse agonist), but none are clinically available.
> > >
> > > -undopaminergic
> > >
> >
> > Do you know whether or not any H3 antagonists are in the pipeline for FDA approval?
> >
>
> No, I don't know. But I was wrong: betahistine is mostly a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, and it is clinically available in Europe, including my location, but it was withdrawn from the market in the US.
>
> -undopaminergic
>

I took betahistine for almost 3 months (I am in Canada). It seemed to make me very depressed. I was taking it for inner-ear problems.

Jay

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?

Posted by undopaminergic on February 12, 2023, at 11:55:22

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic?, posted by Lamdage22 on February 9, 2023, at 11:21:51

> Yep, that rings a bell. Are you still experiencing psychotic symptoms?
>

No, and I haven't had a full psychosis since the end of 2009 (resembling paranoid schizophrenia).

> Was hospital of any help?

Not much. Especially when considering that I would have sought outpatient treatment without it.

> Are you out again?

No.

-undopaminergic

 

Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? Jay2112

Posted by undopaminergic on February 12, 2023, at 12:00:25

In reply to Re:Neuroleptics brain specific antihistaminergic? undopaminergic, posted by Jay2112 on February 9, 2023, at 19:10:51

> > > > >
> > > > > I found something that you might find useful:
> > > > >
> > > > > https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20021346/
> > > > >
> > > >
> > > > I'm very interested in trying a histamine H3-receptor antagonist (or inverse agonist), but none are clinically available.
> > > >
> > > > -undopaminergic
> > > >
> > >
> > > Do you know whether or not any H3 antagonists are in the pipeline for FDA approval?
> > >
> >
> > No, I don't know. But I was wrong: betahistine is mostly a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, and it is clinically available in Europe, including my location, but it was withdrawn from the market in the US.
> >
> > -undopaminergic
> >
>
> I took betahistine for almost 3 months (I am in Canada). It seemed to make me very depressed. I was taking it for inner-ear problems.
>
> Jay

H3 antagonists increase histaminergic neurotransmission, and should have stimulant-like effects. Maybe you have endogenously high histamine? Do you benefit from regular (H1) antihistamines?

-undopaminergic


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