Posted by ed_uk on June 19, 2005, at 20:42:46
In reply to Re: Allopregnanolone, posted by linkadge on June 19, 2005, at 18:49:22
>I know zyprexa has an effect on this neurosteroid as well.
You're absolutely right Link........
Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Jun 1;47(11):1000-4.
Olanzapine increases allopregnanolone in the rat cerebral cortex.
Marx CE, Duncan GE, Gilmore JH, Lieberman JA, Morrow AL.
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7160, USA.
BACKGROUND: The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one) has anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties, potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channel function with 20-fold higher potency than benzodiazepines. Behavioral studies demonstrate that olanzapine has anxiolyticlike properties in animals, but the mechanism responsible for these effects is not clear. We examined the effect of acute olanzapine administration on cerebral cortical allopregnanolone and its relationship to serum progesterone and corticosterone levels in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to intraperitoneal (IP) saline injection for 5 days. On the day of the experiment, rats were injected with olanzapine (0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg IP, 10-11 rats per condition). Rats were sacrificed 1 hour later, and cerebral cortical allopregnanolone levels and serum progesterone and corticosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Olanzapine increases cerebral cortical allopregnanolone up to fourfold, depending on dose. Positive correlations were observed between cerebral cortical allopregnanolone and serum progesterone levels and between cerebral cortical allopregnanolone and serum corticosterone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine-induced increases in the potent GABA(A) receptor modulator allopregnanolone may alter GABAergic neurotransmission, possibly contributing to antipsychotic efficacy. If allopregnanolone alterations are linked to psychotic symptom relief, neurosteroids may represent molecules for pharmacologic intervention.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Jan;28(1):1-13.
Olanzapine and clozapine increase the GABAergic neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone in rodents.
Marx CE, VanDoren MJ, Duncan GE, Lieberman JA, Morrow AL.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA. email@example.com
The neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone is a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor modulator with anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects. Olanzapine and clozapine also have anxiolytic-like effects in behavioral models. We therefore postulated that olanzapine and clozapine would elevate allopregnanolone levels, but risperidone and haloperidol would have minimal effects. Male rats received intraperitoneal olanzapine (2.5-10.0 mg/kg), clozapine (5.0-20.0 mg/kg), risperidone (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), haloperidol (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or vehicle. Cerebral cortical allopregnanolone and peripheral progesterone and corticosterone levels were determined. Adrenalectomized animals were also examined. Both olanzapine and clozapine increased cerebral cortical allopregnanolone levels, but neither risperidone nor haloperidol had significant effects. Olanzapine and clozapine also increased serum progesterone and corticosterone levels. Adrenalectomy prevented olanzapine- and clozapine-induced elevations in allopregnanolone. Allopregnanolone induction may contribute to olanzapine and clozapine anxiolytic, antidepressant, and mood-stabilizing actions. Alterations in this neuroactive steroid may result in the modulation of GABAergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, potentially contributing to antipsychotic efficacy.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Sep;29(9):1597-609.
Role of neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone in antipsychotic-like action of olanzapine in rodents.
Ugale RR, Hirani K, Morelli M, Chopde CT.
University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
Olanzapine increases brain allopregnanolone (ALLO) levels sufficiently to modulate neuronal activity by allosterically regulating GABAA receptors. Recently, we reported the antipsychotic-like profile of ALLO in rodents. The present study examined the hypothesis that olanzapine-induced elevation of endogenous neurosteroid ALLO is vital for its neuroleptic-like action. The conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and apomorphine-induced climbing behavioral paradigms were used in rodents. Administration of ALLO (1 microg, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)) or neurosteroidogenic agents such as the mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptor agonist, FGIN 1-27 (0.5 microg, i.c.v.) or the ALLO precursor, progesterone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated olanzapine-induced blockade of CAR and apomorphine-induced climbing. In contrast, these agents failed to alter the antipsychotic-like effect of risperidone and haloperidol. On the other hand, inhibition of the endogenous biosynthesis of neurosteroids by the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, trilostane (30 mg/kg, i.p.), the 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase inhibitor, indomethacin (5 mg/kg, i.p.), or the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (1 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the effect of olanzapine, but not of risperidone and haloperidol. Socially isolated animals, known to exhibit decreased brain ALLO and GABAA receptor functions, displayed a shortening in the muscimol-induced loss of righting reflex and an increased susceptibility to apomorphine-induced climbing. Administration of olanzapine, but not of haloperidol and risperidone, normalized the duration of muscimol-elicited loss of righting reflex. Although all three antipsychotics proved capable of antagonizing the apomorphine-induced climbing, a dose almost five times higher of olanzapine was required in socially isolated animals. The data obtained suggest that enhancement of the GABAergic tone plays a key role in the antipsychotic-like effect exerted by olanzapine in rodents, likely as a consequence of augmented levels of neuroactive steroids, in particular ALLO, in the brain. The present findings provide the first specific behavioral evidence in support of the hypothesis that neuroactive steroid ALLO- mediated GABAergic modulation is essential for the antipsychotic-like action of olanzapine.