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Re: Great article about hormones and mood disorders Noa

Posted by Larry Hoover on January 17, 2003, at 11:41:31

In reply to Re: Great article about hormones and mood disorders, posted by Noa on January 17, 2003, at 6:07:05

> Interesting article.
> I take glucophage xr for insulin resistance. When I went to the endo for my thyroid problem, he subsequently worked me up for a number of endocrine disorders that I was at risk for, had signs of etc. Thankfully, the more serious genetic disorders turned out negative (they might have required surgery, etc.), but my glucose tolerance test was indicative of insulin resistance. This means I am at risk for diabetes, but do not have diabetes now. My blood sugar is normal most of the time, but after eating, it goes up too high and then comes down low.

One of the possible causes of insulin resistance is omega-3 fatty acid deficiency. The treatment for that is fish oil. Ya, I know, people get sick of hearing about fish oil all the time. However, recent studies (using rats) have shown that insulin resistance is mediated by receptors on skeletal muscle cells and fat-storage tissues called adipocytes. Now, one of the problems with studies in people is that it seems to matter how far advanced the insulin resistance has gone. People with frank type 2 diabetes can have major problems with fish oil because blood sugar can go up or down. If caught early enough, it seems that fish oil will restore insulin-regulated glucose uptake into muscle tissue. There's a family trait that predisposes to type 2 diabetes (both of my bloodlines), and my brother has been able to go off presciption drugs by using fish oil. You may need medical supervision if you're already symptomatic, but if you're testing your own glucose levels, you already know how to adjust your drugs according to your true need.

Here are a few abstracts:

Endocr Regul 2002 Dec;36(4):143-9

Comparison of the extrapancreatic action of gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFAs in the high fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

Simoncikova P, Wein S, Gasperikova D, Ukropec J, Certik M, Klimes I, Sebokova E.

Department of Biochemical Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia.

OBJECTIVE: The effect of dietary borage oil (rich in the gamma-linolenic acid [GLA]) on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism was compared with that of fish oil (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]) in high fat (HF) diet-induced insulin resistance (IR) of rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks a standard laboratory chow (Controls) or high fat diet consisting of 70-cal % fat. In addition, a group of rats was fed high fat (HF) diet where a part of saturated fat was replaced with fish oil as a source of n-3 PUFAs (HF+FO), or borage oil as a source of GLA (HF+GLA). In vivo insulin action was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (Tg) and glycerol levels in blood and tissue depots were also measured. RESULTS: Increased levels of Tg, FFA and glycerol in circulation after HF diet were accompanied by their raised accumulation in insulin sensitive tissues. FO feeding lowered the concentration of all lipids in serum and prevented their accumulation in both tissues. On the other hand GLA supplementation into the high fat diet did not suppress increased levels of Tg, FFA and glycerol in circulation and tissue depots as well. FO feeding significantly reduced HF diet-induced in vivo IR, while GLA supplementation did not improve the in vivo insulin sensitivity in HF diet induced insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: 1. Substitution of FO into the high fat diet led to an improvement of in vivo insulin action; 2. this insulin sensitizing effect of FO was accompanied by a decrease of circulating Tg, FFA and glycerol levels in the postprandial state and by a lower lipid content in liver and skeletal muscle. 3. on the opposite, GLA treatment failed to improve in vivo insulin action; and 4. was associated with an adverse effect on lipid levels both in circulation and tissue depots.

Horm Metab Res 2002 Jul;34(7):360-6

Regulation of glucose transport and transporter 4 (GLUT-4) in muscle and adipocytes of sucrose-fed rats: effects of N-3 poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids.

Peyron-Caso E, Fluteau-Nadler S, Kabir M, Guerre-Millo M, Quignard-Boulange A, Slama G, Rizkalla SW.

Department of Diabetes-INSERM U341, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Paris, France.

The goal of this study was to compare the short-term effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated (fish oil) and monounsaturated (olive oil) fatty acids on glucose transport, plasma glucose and lipid controls in a dietary insulin resistance model using sucrose-fed rats. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms were also determined in the muscle and adipose tissue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old) were randomized for diets containing 57.5 % (w/w) sucrose and 14 % lipids as either fish oil (SF), olive oil (SO) or a mixture of standard oils (SC) for 3 weeks. A fourth control group (C) was fed a diet containing 57.5 % starch and 14 % standard oils. After three weeks on the diet, body weight was comparable in the four groups. The sucrose-fed rats were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic in response to glucose load. The presence of fish oil in the sucrose diet prevented sucrose-induced hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, but had no effect on plasma glucose levels. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes increased after feeding with fish oil (p < 0.005). These modifications were associated with increased Glut-4 protein (p < 0.05) and mRNA levels in adipocytes. In the muscle, no effect was found on Glut-4 protein levels. Olive oil, however, could not bring about any improvement in plasma insulin, plasma lipids or Glut-4 protein levels. We therefore conclude that the presence of fish oil, in contrast to olive oil, prevents insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in rats on a sucrose diet, and restores Glut-4 protein quantity in adipocytes but not in muscle at basal levels. Dietary regulation of Glut-4 proteins appears to be tissue specific and might depend on insulin stimulation and/or duration of dietary interventions.

Ann Nutr Metab 2002;46(3-4):114-20

Effect of dietary fish oil on insulin sensitivity and metabolic fate of glucose in the skeletal muscle of normal rats.

D'Alessandro ME, Lombardo YB, Chicco A.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria Paraje, El Pozo, Santa Fe, Argentina.

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the administration of cod liver oil on the non-oxidative and oxidative fate of glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle of normal rats. To achieve this goal, the gastrocnemius was examined regarding glucose oxidation, glycogen synthase activity and glycogen storage both at baseline and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamping. The results show that dietary fish oil decreases plasma insulin levels without alteration in glucose homeostasis (at baseline). In addition, the observed enhancement in whole body glucose utilization during clamping suggests an increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, under insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, an enhancement in the glycolytic pathway (increased levels of muscle glucose-6-phosphate and plasma lactate) rather than changes in the oxidation (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) and storage components of glucose metabolism was observed in the skeletal muscle of rats fed dietary fish oil. These results coupled with the hypolipidemic effects of fish oil may have implications for the prevention and/or management of some pathological states manifested by insulin resistance with or without dyslipidemia.





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